WATER FILTRATION HALIFAX

 

WHAT IS REVERSE OSMOSIS?

​Reverse osmosis (RO) is a unique type of water filtration that uses a semi-permeable, super thin membrane with holes tiny enough to pass clean water through at the same time rejecting bigger molecules such as dissolved salts and many other impurities including bacteria.

Reverse osmosis is used to create highly purified water for your drinking water systems in Halifax, food and beverage processing, industrial boilers, Pharmaceutical production, seawater desalination, and multiple other applications. It has been a valuable technology for purifying your water for more than a century and commercialized since the early 60’s

 

ABOUT REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES

A reverse osmosis system water purification system is constructed around its individual membranes.  Each individual membrane is a spiral wound sheet of part-permeable material. Membranes appear in 2-inch, 4-inch, and 8-inch diameter with the 4- and 8-inch diameter sizes often used in the water filtration industry.

The industry standard is a 40-inch length so that membranes from different reverse osmosis water purification manufacturers are interchangeable in filter equipment systems. One of the main measurements of a reverse osmosis membrane is its square footage. Membranes are available in the range of 350-450 square feet on the surface area.

Part-permeable membranes were initially constructed using cellulose acetate (CA) but later the water filter industry switched primarily to the use of a light film composite (TFC) being located on top of a tougher substrate. TFC membranes are often used in today’s water purification industry.

HOW WILL YOUR REVERSE OSMOSIS WATER PURIFIER WORK?

Reverse osmosis is a continuously operating water treatment technology that uses high pressure to pass your Halifax water through a thin membrane and thereby removes by separating the impurities from water.

RO works by reversing the principle of osmosis, the regular tendency of water with dissolved salts to go through a membrane from lower to a higher salt value. This process is found throughout nature. Plants use it to soak up water and nutrients from the soil. In humans and other animals, our kidneys use osmosis to soak up water from blood.

In your RO system, pressure (likely from a pump) is used to overtake natural osmotic pressure, forcing feedwater with it haul of dissolved salts and many other impurities through a semipermeable membrane that will remove a high percentage of your impurities. The end result is highly purified water.

The rejected impurities and salts concentrate at the top of the membrane and are pushed from the system to drain other processes. In a normal commercial industrial application, 75% of the feedwater is fully purified. In procedures in which water conservation is needed, 85% of the feedwater is purified.

A Reverse Osmosis system uses cross-filtration, where the solution crosses the filter with 2 outlets: the contaminated water goes one way and the fresh filtered water goes another way. To reduce buildup of pollutants, the cross-flow filtration process allows water to clear away contaminant buildup and with enough turbulence to allow the membrane surface to be clean.

 

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MAJOR KEY COMPONENTS OF A REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM

​Individual membranes are dropped into a single housing, which can accommodate up to 6 membranes in series. Then housings are grouped into parallel flow streams named a “stage”. A single RO system can have as many as three stages in a series.

The benefit of using reverse osmosis stages in series is reducing the wastewater. In efficient reverse osmosis stage systems, wastewater will be reduced to 15% of the total water flow, whereas reject flow from an individual membrane alone can be up to 50%.

A complete reverse osmosis system also includes a pretreatment cartridge filtration, a controls system, and a pressure pump. In a small reverse osmosis system, the controls may be as basic as rotameters and valves. A larger reverse osmosis system will contain temperature, flow and pressure transmitters, also including control valves operated from a human machine interface or programmable logic controller.

Bigger systems also use variable frequency drives for the pressure pump and often energy recovery devices.  Halifax Water Softeners offers a full line of small to large residential reverse osmosis systems.

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